For more than 130 years, the crankshaft has been utilized in internal combustion engines to transfer the reciprocating linear motion of the pistons to rotary motion so it’s available for propulsion, pumping and power production.

The function of the crankshaft design represents a major shortcoming in the transfer of motion, due to the limitations of its inherent geometry, creating numerous inefficiencies and negative impacts in the overall design of the engine.

The CV (Constant Velocity) engine design replaces the crankshaft with a Powershaft & Rodrack Assembly. The CV engine design produces as much as 58% more torque than a crankshaft-based engine producing equal power, while cutting fuel consumption by more than half and slashing exhaust emissions by more than 70%.

The Constant Velocity Motion Technology is the solution to nearly all of the inherent design and functional limitations created by the geometric inefficiencies of crankshaft-based engines, pumps, compressors, air motors, hydro-generators and other applications, both existing and yet to be invented.

The CV Technology represents endless product innovation opportunities.

Internal Combustion Engines
Air Motors
Pumps & Compressors

Massive Continuous Torque

The crankshaft mechanism has served a vital role in internal combustion engine design for more than 130 years. However, despite continuous refinement and incremental improvements over time, the crankshaft has reached the end of its useful life.

Crankshaft geometry has inherent design limitations in the transfer of linear force to rotational power.  A crankshaft-based engine achieves its peak torque for only one brief moment at close to mid-stroke.

The CVE design achieves its maximum torque starting at 8%* of the stroke after TDC and maintains maximum torque for over 90%* of the stroke after TDC.  

Side-by-side static testing of equal displacement crankshaft based versus CVE Technology based designs show that the CVE design boasts a 58%* improvement in torque over today’s crankshaft engine design.  

The patented CV Engine/Technology (CVE) replaces the crankshaft completely with a Powershaft and Rodrack Assembly, which fundamentally alters the geometric relationship of the motion of the piston stroke relative to the movement of the rotating shaft. It continuously converts linear reciprocating piston motion to rotary movement and vice versa in the most efficient manner possible.

View Torque Curve
View Prototype test results

Fuel Efficient

When comparing engine designs producing equal power:

The fuel required by the crankshaft-based engine is far greater because:

  1. The amount of fuel injected into the cylinder must be substantial enough to last until mid-stroke, where a momentary maximum transfer of linear motion to rotational power occurs
  2. Due to the asynchronous motion of the opposing pistons, an increased amount of energy is required to propel these pistons through their cycle in order to rotate the crankshaft and drive the other pistons not engaged in the power stroke
  3. The geometry of the crankshaft to connecting rod to piston connection creates drag and friction due to piston side load on the cylinder walls
  4. The pistons are not traveling at a constant velocity and are operating at continuously varying speeds throughout the stroke, which creates a pulsation within the crankcase

The fuel required by the CV Engine design is far less because:

  1. The CVE design requires only a small amount of fuel at the top of the stroke to propel the piston down the cylinder to create continuous maximum transfer of linear motion to rotational power occurs
  2. The piston and rodrack assembly is one integrated component that is in perfect linear alignment, permitting the pistons to move in synchronous motion, requiring minimal energy to propel the full cycle
  3. Drag and friction due to piston side load on the cylinder walls is non-existent in the CVE engine design due to perfect linear alignment of the piston and rodrack assembly and the linear bearings that support the travel of the rodrack assembly
  4. The pistons in the CVE are traveling at a constant velocity and are operating at constant speeds throughout more than 80%* of the stroke, virtually eliminating pulsation within the CVE Powercase

Reduced Emissions & Environmental Impact

When comparing engine designs producing equal power:

Crankshaft Engine Design

  1. In a four-stroke crankshaft-based engine, the fuel required to obtain optimum performance must be sufficient to sustain combustion until the piston reaches mid- stroke and the fuel charge must simultaneously increase in volume as the volume within the cylinder increases as the piston travels to mid-stroke.
  2. Due to the required duration of combustion and required piston travel within the cylinder, only half of the stroke remains to eliminate the fuel charge, therefore the entire volume of fuel required cannot be burned by the time the power stroke is complete
  3. The unburned fuel is therefore wasted and creates additional harmful emissions in the exhaust gasses, which must be captured and processed by the catalytic converter.  The use of engine exhaust scrubbing devices such as diesel particulate filters and catalytic converters, which require expensive precious metals such as platinum, palladium and rhodium. 
  4. Due to crankshaft geometry, the piston is subject to side-loading.  This side load not only creates friction and drag and negatively impacts torque, the unloaded side of the piston creates a gap between the piston and the cylinder wall, allowing exhaust gases to escape into the crankcase, contaminating the engine oil, requiring frequent and environmentally impactful oil and filter changes.
  5. According to Lafayette University, almost 30% of all US global warming emissions result from America’s transportation sector.  60% of U.S. transportation emissions come from cars and light trucks, which conveys the significant role vehicle exhaust from internal combustion engines in passenger cars has on our environment and community health.
    Read the study...

CV Motion Technology Engine Design

  1. In the CVE four stroke design, optimum performance is achieved at the top of the stroke, where the volume of the cylinder is relatively small, requiring significantly less fuel to generate the maximum transfer of power
  2. The maximum transfer of power occurs at close to the top of the stroke in the CV Engine design.  This short duration combustion phase allows for nearly the entire stroke to be utilized to complete the total combustion of the smaller required fuel charge by the time the exhaust stroke is initiated  
  3. Due to the absence of the majority of unburned fuel and harmful emissions, the need for a catalytic converter in gasoline engine applications is completely eliminated.  The cost savings on a per engine basis is significant. Corresponding reductions in emissions are achieved in diesel engine applications which may permit the elimination of exhaust scrubbing devices such as diesel particulate filters
  4. In the CVE design, the piston and rodrack assembly functions as one integrated component that is in perfect linear alignment and therefore does not allow the piston to come in contact with the cylinder wall.  This eliminates piston to side load. This minimizes drag and friction and eliminates the heat produced by the contact of the piston with the cylinder wall.
  5. The CVE operates with a fully sealed powercase, much like a sealed transmission case.  The lack of piston side loading combined with the sealed powercase prevents combustion by-products from entering the powercase, preventing contamination of the engine oil, virtually eliminating environmentally impactful oil and filter changes.
  6. The forecasted 70% reduction in exhaust emissions from the use of the CV Engine in all modes of fueled transportation would translate to a reduction from 8,887 grams of CO2 per gallon of gasoline burned to 2,667 grams of CO2 and a reduction from 10,180 grams of CO2 per gallon of diesel burned to 3,054 grams of CO2. The potential impact of the CV Engine on reducing global warming emissions from carbon dioxide is enormous.
    Read the study...


To illustrate the significant reductions in physical size that can be achieved via the CVE design, a direct comparison with a comparable crankshaft-based engine follows.

When comparing engine designs producing equal power:

Specifications Crankshaft Engine Design
Subaru FB25 (4cyl, 4 stroke)
CV Motion Technology Engine Design
A02 Version (4cyl, 4 stroke)
Horsepower 170 193
Displacement 152.4 cu or 2498 cc 27 cu or 443 cc
RPM 5800 (non direct) 2450 (direct, not geared)
Height 23.63" 10"
Width 32.67" 14.5"
Length 16.93" 11.8"


The CV Engine design eliminates the crankshaft, the second heaviest component of an internal combustion engine after the engine block.  

The CV Engine produces the same power from a much smaller displacement and therefore is lighter overall.  The CV Engine also requires fewer total parts in its construction and these parts are generally smaller and lighter as well.  

The high compression pressures required in the crankshaft-based design impacts many aspects of the overall engine design, as multiple components must be made robust enough to withstand the very high pressures, which translates to significantly increased engine weight.  The CVE design operates at substantially reduced pressures (gas or diesel) which allows for the weight of both the engine and the related subassemblies it would be installed in to be much lighter.

The combined effect of the elimination of the crankshaft, the physically smaller components comprising the engine and the ability to assemble the engine with components of an overall lighter weight construction translates to significant weight savings, on the order of hundreds of pounds even in a modest car size engine.

When comparing engine designs producing equal power:

Specifications Crankshaft Engine Design
Subaru FB25 (4cyl, 4 stroke)
CV Motion Technology Engine Design
A02 Version (4cyl, 4 stroke)
Horsepower 170 193
Displacement 152.4 cu or 2498 cc 27 cu or 443 cc
RPM 5800 (non direct) 2450 (direct, not geared)
Dry Weight 269 lbs 71 lbs

Fully Scalable

The CVE design allows for an extensive range of configurations, several of which are impossible or impractical with a crankshaft-based design.  The design of the CVE powershaft allows for unique and highly beneficial designs which creates substantial manufacturing efficiencies, with resultant cost and operational savings.  

The tables below highlight some of the applications, configurations and manufacturing benefits.

Configuration Benefit
Multi-fuel Gas, diesel, jet fuel, natural gas, hydrogen, compressed air
Multi-module engine Combine fueled engine, compressor, air motor (drone)
Multi-module engine Combine fueled engine, compressor, air motor (hyper-mileage vehicle)
Multiple engines Common, hollow powershaft allows for multiple, redundant engines
Multiple engines Coupled engines brought on/off line (more power vs. fuel savings)
General aviation Redundant engines; lightweight diesel application, diesel fuel vs. avgas
Automobile Compact, mid-engine designs without sacrificing interior space
Range extender (battery) Small engine recharges batteries for electric motor without stopping
Range extender (no battery) Small engine powers DC generator to directly power electric motors
Recreational vehicles Reduced emissions create acceptance in environmentally sensitive areas
Generators / Heavy equipment Greatly reduced fuel use creates less downtime & cost savings
Ocean freight / Cruise Ships Multiple engines coupled for high speed, “green” ocean crossings
Ocean freight / Cruise Ships Uncouple all but one engine for low emission in-harbor operation
Ocean freight / Cruise Ships Massive fuel savings from propulsion engines and ship’s electric generators
Trucking industry Massive fuel savings for fleet operators
Trucking industry Fuel savings mean the difference between profit & loss for owner/operators
Marine industry Same power from smaller engine creates more useable space
Marine industry Same power with less weight improves performance and saves fuel
Scalable size Same horsepower produced with smaller displacement
Scalable output Same displacement generating greater horsepower


Manufacturing Benefit
Common platform Many engine variants (4, 6, 8 cylinders) from two CV engine configurations)
Hollow Powershaft Engage or disengage multiple engines to save fuel or provide power
Hollow Powershaft Reduces number of engine variants required; less parts inventory
Simplified production Reduce the number of engine variant production lines; faster production
Less factory space required Reduced factory overhead and building maintenance expenses
Less personnel required Reduced payroll and benefits expenses
Reduced number of tools Production line elimination also eliminates tools required
Reduced number of parts Reduced parts manufacturing, storage and inventory tracking expense
Reduced number of suppliers Simplified supply chain; less dependency on suppliers; reduced delays
Smaller engine dimensions More storage in same space; more engines shipped in same container


Vehicles Benefit
Lighter sub-assemblies A significantly lighter engine allows for substantially lighter sub-assemblies
Smaller braking components Less mass due to reduced component weight allows for smaller brakes
Reduced overall weight Weight savings from engine & all sub-assemblies adds to fuel savings
Reduced fuel consumption Combined effect from engine operation, lighter engine and components
Smaller, simpler transmissions Low RPM, high torque engine permits 2 forward, 1 reverse gearing
Lower center of gravity Horizontally opposed engine, smaller dimensions, mid-engine applications
Storage & passenger space Reduced engine volume opens up space for people and cargo
Trucking industry Reduced overall weight permits heavier payloads
Simpler to maintain Sealed power case equate to elimination of oil changes; less waste

*Data derived from static testing and/or mathematical calculations generally stating less than actual expected results


50% Complete

Two Step

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.